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A Dictionary of Modern English Usage PDF Book By H. W. Fowler

A Dictionary of Modern English Usage

  • Author: H. W. Fowler
  • ISBN Code: : 0191615110
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Page : 832 pages
  • Genre : Reference
  • Reviews : 255 Readers
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Books Synopsis

'What grammarians say should be has perhaps less influence on what shall be than even the more modest of them realize ...' No book had more influence on twentieth-century attitudes to the English language in Britain than Henry Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage. It rapidly became the standard work of reference for the correct use of English in terms of choice of words, grammar, and style. Much loved for his firm opinions, passion, and dry humour, Fowler has stood the test of time and is still considered the best arbiter of good practice. In this new edition of the original Dictionary, David Crystal goes beyond the popular mythology surrounding Fowler's reputation to retrace his method and arrive at a fresh evaluation of his place in the history of linguistic thought. With a wealth of entertaining examples he looks at Fowler's stated principles and the tensions between his prescriptive and descriptive temperaments. He shows that the Dictionary does a great more than make normative recommendations and express private opinion. In addition he offers a modern perspective on some 300 entries, in which he shows how English has changed since the 1920s. ABOUT THE SERIES: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the widest range of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, helpful notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.

Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage PDF Book By Jeremy Butterfield

Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage

  • Author: Jeremy Butterfield
  • ISBN Code: : 0191064947
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Page : 928 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 147 Readers
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Books Synopsis

Why literally shouldn't be taken literally. Why Americans think home in on something is a mistake and Brits think hone in is. Is it OK to spell OK okay? What's wrong with hence why? Was Alanis Morrisette ever ironic? Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage is the world-famous guide to English usage, loved and used by writers, editors, and anyone who values correct English since it first appeared in 1926. Fowler's gives comprehensive and practical advice on complex points of grammar, syntax, punctuation, style, and word choice. Now enlarged and completely revised to reflect English usage in the 21st century, it provides a crystal-clear, authoritative picture of the English we use, while illuminating scores of usage questions old and new. International in scope, it gives in-depth coverage of both British and American English usage issues, with reference also to the English of Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, and South Africa. The thousands of authentic examples in the book vividly demonstra

A Dictionary of Modern English Usage PDF Book By H. W. Fowler

A Dictionary of Modern English Usage

  • Author: H. W. Fowler
  • ISBN Code: : 0191571199
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Page : 832 pages
  • Genre : Reference
  • Reviews : 480 Readers
  • GET BOOK

Books Synopsis

'What grammarians say should be has perhaps less influence on what shall be than even the more modest of them realize ...' No book had more influence on twentieth-century attitudes to the English language in Britain than Henry Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage. It rapidly became the standard work of reference for the correct use of English in terms of choice of words, grammar, and style. Much loved for his firm opinions, passion, and dry humour, Fowler has stood the test of time and is still considered the best arbiter of good practice. In this new edition of the original Dictionary, David Crystal goes beyond the popular mythology surrounding Fowler's reputation to retrace his method and arrive at a fresh evaluation of his place in the history of linguistic thought. With a wealth of entertaining examples he looks at Fowler's stated principles and the tensions between his prescriptive and descriptive temperaments. He shows that the Dictionary does a great more than make normative recommendations and express private opinion. In addition he offers a modern perspective on some 300 entries, in which he shows how English has changed since the 1920s. ABOUT THE SERIES: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the widest range of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, helpful notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.

Fowler's Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage PDF Book By Jeremy Butterfield

Fowler's Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage

  • Author: Jeremy Butterfield
  • ISBN Code: : 0191062308
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Page : 688 pages
  • Genre : Reference
  • Reviews : 341 Readers
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Books Synopsis

Fowler's Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage is an invaluable reference work that offers the best advice on English usage. Known in previous editions as the 'Pocket Fowler', this third edition is a descendant of the original 1926 edition of A Dictionary of Modern English Usage by Henry Fowler. Based on the unrivalled evidence and research of the Oxford Languages Programme, the new edition answers your most frequently asked questions about language use. Should you use a split infinitive, or a preposition at the end of a sentence? Is it infer or imply? Who or whom? What are the main differences between British and American English? Over 4,000 entries offer clear recommendations on issues of grammar, pronunciation, spelling, confusable words, and written style. Real examples are drawn from OUP's vast database of classic and contemporary literary sources, newspapers and magazines, and the Internet. Jeremy Butterfield has judiciously revised the text to reflect the English usage practices and con

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar PDF Book By Bas Aarts,Sylvia Chalker,Edmund Weiner

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar

  • Author: Bas Aarts,Sylvia Chalker,Edmund Weiner
  • ISBN Code: : 0191079006
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Page : 464 pages
  • Genre : Reference
  • Reviews : 704 Readers
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Books Synopsis

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar is a straightforward and accessible A-Z guide to the diverse and often complex terminology of English grammar. It contains over 1,600 entries with clear and concise definitions, enhanced by numerous example sentences, as well as relevant quotations from the scholarly literature of the field. This second edition is written and edited by Professor Bas Aarts of University College London, writer of the acclaimed Oxford Modern English Grammar. It has been fully revised and updated, with particular attention paid to refreshing the example sentences included within the text. There are over 150 new entries that cover current terminology which has arisen since the publication of the first edition, and there are also new entries on the most important English grammars published since the start of the 20th century. Hundreds of new cross-references enhance the user-friendly nature of the text, and the list of works cited has been thoroughly updated to reflect the current state of the field. A short appendix of web links has been added. All in all, this Dictionary is an invaluable guide to English grammar for all students and teachers of the subject, as well as all those with an informed interest in the English language.

Oxford A-Z of English Usage PDF Book By Jeremy Butterfield

Oxford A-Z of English Usage

  • Author: Jeremy Butterfield
  • ISBN Code: : 0192689274
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Page : pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 267 Readers
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Books Synopsis

Readers and writers of all levels will find the Oxford A-Z of English Usage essential. Based on Oxford's world-leading dictionary research programmes and contemporary language monitoring, and giving examples of real usage, this book provides the essential information about usage and correct English that is needed in practical, everyday situations. Arranged in A-Z sequence, it contains over 680 entries on issues of spelling, grammar, meaning and PC language that confuse people (e.g. licence / license; learning difficulties / mental handicap; fewer / less). In addition, there are more than 20 special feature articles on specific topics such as hyphenation or the use of Latin plurals, as well as commonly confused terms like Britain, Great Britain, the British Isles, England. With a fresh page design, the Oxford A-Z of English Usage gives the reader immediate and easy access to answers, by means of clear and coherent explanations and illustrations. It will prove the first port of call for any reader seeking clear, authoritative help with usage questions.

Damp Squid PDF Book By Jeremy Butterfield

Damp Squid

  • Author: Jeremy Butterfield
  • ISBN Code: : 0191587532
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Page : 192 pages
  • Genre : Reference
  • Reviews : 878 Readers
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Books Synopsis

How many words are there in the English language and where were they born? Why does spelling 'wobble' and why do meanings change? How do words behave towards each other - and how do we behave towards words? And what does this all mean for dictionary-making in the 21st century? This entertaining book has the up-to-date and authoritative answers to all the key questions about our language. Using evidence provided by the world's largest language databank, the Oxford English Corpus, Butterfield exposes the English language's peculiarities and penchants, its development and difficulties, revealing exactly how it operates. Interpolating his expert knowledge of dictionary-making, Butterfield explains how dictionaries decide which words to include, how they find definitions, and how a Corpus influences the process. Whether you are happy to give the language free rein (free reign?), or whether you are more straight-laced (strait-laced?) when it comes to change, you will be amazed at what is revealed when the English language goes buck naked. (Or should that be butt naked?)

An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English PDF Book By Ernest Weekley

An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English

  • Author: Ernest Weekley
  • ISBN Code: : 0486122875
  • Publisher : Courier Corporation
  • Page : 448 pages
  • Genre : Reference
  • Reviews : 720 Readers
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Books Synopsis

Volume 1 of 2. Classic contains most of the more common words, plus slang, archaic words and phrases, and common foreign words. Roots are identified, colloquial usages and alternate spellings are given.

Dictionary of Confusable Words PDF Book By Adrian Room

Dictionary of Confusable Words

  • Author: Adrian Room
  • ISBN Code: : 1136597824
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Page : 310 pages
  • Genre : Literary Criticism
  • Reviews : 355 Readers
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Books Synopsis

First Published in 2000. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Oxford Modern English Grammar PDF Book By Bas Aarts

Oxford Modern English Grammar

  • Author: Bas Aarts
  • ISBN Code: : 0191650471
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Page : 431 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 523 Readers
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Books Synopsis

Oxford Modern English Grammar is Oxford's brand new and definitive guide to English grammar. This book has been written by a leading expert in the field, covers both British and American English, and makes use of authentic spoken and written examples. Arranged in four clear parts for ease of use, its comprehensive coverage ranges from the very basic to the most complex aspects of grammar, all of which are explained clearly yet authoritatively. This descriptive source of reference is invaluable for those with an interest in the English language, undergraduate and postgraduate students, and for anyone who would like a clear guide to English grammar and how it is used.

The Routledge Dictionary of Modern American Slang and Unconventional English PDF Book By Tom Dalzell

The Routledge Dictionary of Modern American Slang and Unconventional English

  • Author: Tom Dalzell
  • ISBN Code: : 1351765205
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Page : 892 pages
  • Genre : Foreign Language Study
  • Reviews : 672 Readers
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Books Synopsis

The Routledge Dictionary of Modern American Slang offers the ultimate record of modern, post WW2 American Slang. The 25,000 entries are accompanied by citations that authenticate the words as well as offer examples of usage from popular literature, newspapers, magazines, movies, television shows, musical lyrics, and Internet user groups. Etymology, cultural context, country of origin and the date the word was first used are also provided. In terms of content, the cultural transformations since 1945 are astounding. Television, computers, drugs, music, unpopular wars, youth movements, changing racial sensitivities and attitudes towards sex and sexuality are all substantial factors that have shaped culture and language. This new edition includes over 500 new headwords collected with citations from the last five years, a period of immense change in the English language, as well as revised existing entries with new dating and citations. No term is excluded on the grounds that it might be considered offensive as a racial, ethnic, religious, sexual or any kind of slur. This dictionary contains many entries and citations that will, and should, offend. Rich, scholarly and informative, The Routledge Dictionary of Modern American Slang and Unconventional English is an indispensable resource for language researchers, lexicographers and translators.

Word by Word PDF Book By Kory Stamper

Word by Word

  • Author: Kory Stamper
  • ISBN Code: : 1101870958
  • Publisher : Vintage
  • Page : 336 pages
  • Genre : Reference
  • Reviews : 230 Readers
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Books Synopsis

“We think of English as a fortress to be defended, but a better analogy is to think of English as a child. We love and nurture it into being, and once it gains gross motor skills, it starts going exactly where we don’t want it to go: it heads right for the goddamned electrical sockets.” With wit and irreverence, lexicographer Kory Stamper cracks open the obsessive world of dictionary writing, from the agonizing decisions about what to define and how to do it to the knotty questions of ever-changing word usage. Filled with fun facts—for example, the first documented usage of “OMG” was in a letter to Winston Churchill—and Stamper’s own stories from the linguistic front lines (including how she became America’s foremost “irregardless” apologist, despite loathing the word), Word by Word is an endlessly entertaining look at the wonderful complexities and eccentricities of the English language.

The Chicago Guide to Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation PDF Book By Bryan A. Garner

The Chicago Guide to Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation

  • Author: Bryan A. Garner
  • ISBN Code: : 022619129X
  • Publisher : Univ of Chicago+ORM
  • Page : 552 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 227 Readers
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Books Synopsis

The authoritative guide to using the English language effectively, from “the greatest writer on grammar and usage that this country has ever produced” (David Yerkes, Columbia University). The author of The Chicago Manual of Style’s popular “Grammar and Usage” chapter, Bryan A. Garner is renowned for explaining the vagaries of English with absolute precision and utmost clarity. With The Chicago Guide to Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation, he has written the definitive guide for writers who want their prose to be both memorable and correct. Garner describes standard literary English—the forms that mark writers and speakers as educated users of the language. He also offers historical context for understanding the development of these forms. The section on grammar explains how the canonical parts of speech came to be identified, while the section on syntax covers the nuances of sentence patterns as well as both traditional sentence diagramming and transformational grammar. The usage section provides an unprecedented trove of empirical evidence in the form of Google Ngrams, diagrams that illustrate the changing prevalence of specific terms over decades and even centuries of English literature. Garner also treats punctuation and word formation, and concludes the book with an exhaustive glossary of grammatical terms and a bibliography of suggested further reading and references. The Chicago Guide to Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation is a magisterial work, the culmination of Garner’s lifelong study of the English language. The result is a landmark resource that will offer clear guidelines to students, writers, and editors alike. “[A manual] for those of us laboring to produce expository prose: nonfiction books, journalistic articles, memorandums, business letters. The conservatism of his advice pushes you to consider audience and occasion, so that you will understand when to follow convention and when you can safely break it.”—John E. McIntyre, Baltimore Sun

Garner's Modern English Usage PDF Book By Bryan Garner

Garner's Modern English Usage

  • Author: Bryan Garner
  • ISBN Code: : 0190491507
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Page : 1008 pages
  • Genre : Reference
  • Reviews : 276 Readers
  • GET BOOK

Books Synopsis

With more than a thousand new entries and more than 2,300 word-frequency ratios, the magisterial fourth edition of this book-now renamed Garner's Modern English Usage (GMEU)-reflects usage lexicography at its finest. Garner explains the nuances of grammar and vocabulary with thoroughness, finesse, and wit. He discourages whatever is slovenly, pretentious, or pedantic. GMEU is the liveliest and most compulsively readable reference work for writers of our time. It delights while providing instruction on skillful, persuasive, and vivid writing. Garner liberates English from two extremes: both from the hidebound "purists" who mistakenly believe that split infinitives and sentence-ending prepositions are malfeasances and from the linguistic relativists who believe that whatever people say or write must necessarily be accepted. The judgments here are backed up not just by a lifetime of study but also by an empirical grounding in the largest linguistic corpus ever available. In this fourth edition, Garner has made extensive use of corpus linguistics to include ratios of standard terms as compared against variants in modern print sources. No other resource provides as comprehensive, reliable, and empirical a guide to current English usage. For all concerned with writing and editing, GMEU will prove invaluable as a desk reference. Garner illustrates with actual examples, cited with chapter and verse, all the linguistic blunders that modern writers and speakers are prone to, whether in word choice, syntax, phrasing, punctuation, or pronunciation. No matter how knowledgeable you may already be, you're sure to learn from every single page of this book.

Dictionary of Untranslatables PDF Book By Barbara Cassin,Emily Apter,Jacques Lezra,Michael Wood

Dictionary of Untranslatables

  • Author: Barbara Cassin,Emily Apter,Jacques Lezra,Michael Wood
  • ISBN Code: : 1400849918
  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Page : 1344 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 176 Readers
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Books Synopsis

Characters in some languages, particularly Hebrew and Arabic, may not display properly due to device limitations. Transliterations of terms appear before the representations in foreign characters. This is an encyclopedic dictionary of close to 400 important philosophical, literary, and political terms and concepts that defy easy—or any—translation from one language and culture to another. Drawn from more than a dozen languages, terms such as Dasein (German), pravda (Russian), saudade (Portuguese), and stato (Italian) are thoroughly examined in all their cross-linguistic and cross-cultural complexities. Spanning the classical, medieval, early modern, modern, and contemporary periods, these are terms that influence thinking across the humanities. The entries, written by more than 150 distinguished scholars, describe the origins and meanings of each term, the history and context of its usage, its translations into other languages, and its use in notable texts. The dictionary also includes essays on the special characteristics of particular languages--English, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish. Originally published in French, this one-of-a-kind reference work is now available in English for the first time, with new contributions from Judith Butler, Daniel Heller-Roazen, Ben Kafka, Kevin McLaughlin, Kenneth Reinhard, Stella Sandford, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Jane Tylus, Anthony Vidler, Susan Wolfson, Robert J. C. Young, and many more.The result is an invaluable reference for students, scholars, and general readers interested in the multilingual lives of some of our most influential words and ideas. Covers close to 400 important philosophical, literary, and political terms that defy easy translation between languages and cultures Includes terms from more than a dozen languages Entries written by more than 150 distinguished thinkers Available in English for the first time, with new contributions by Judith Butler, Daniel Heller-Roazen, Ben Kafka, Kevin McLaughlin, Kenneth Reinhard, Stella Sandford, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Jane Tylus, Anthony Vidler, Susan Wolfson, Robert J. C. Young, and many more Contains extensive cross-references and bibliographies An invaluable resource for students and scholars across the humanities

Little Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs PDF Book By Elizabeth Knowles

Little Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs

  • Author: Elizabeth Knowles
  • ISBN Code: : 0191084247
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Page : 512 pages
  • Genre : Reference
  • Reviews : 398 Readers
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Books Synopsis

Little Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs features over 2,000 proverbs and sayings from around the world, arranged across 250 subjects - from 'Books' and 'Borrowing' to 'Dreams' and 'Drink'. Each theme has a short introduction giving an overview of the proverbial treatment of the topic and each proverb is accompanied by information on its date, source, and meaning. Not only is this book a pleasure to browse but it is ideal for quick reference with its comprehensive index that makes it easy to find the exact phrase you're looking for. Beautifully produced and designed, it is the perfect gift for anyone who loves language. Drawing on Oxford's ongoing dictionary research and language monitoring, the second edition of this delightful book adds phrases that have come to prominence, or increased in popularity, since publication of the first edition, such as 'Never waste a good crisis' and 'Dress for the job you want, not for the job you have', which add a contemporary flavour to the selection of more traditional English proverbs, and the popular sayings used in the English-speaking world from Asia, Africa, Middle East, and many other cultures. Find phrases on all aspects of life in this fascinating little book.

Garner's Modern English Usage PDF Book By Bryan Garner

Garner's Modern English Usage

  • Author: Bryan Garner
  • ISBN Code: : 0190491493
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Page : 1008 pages
  • Genre : Reference
  • Reviews : 790 Readers
  • GET BOOK

Books Synopsis

With more than a thousand new entries and more than 2,300 word-frequency ratios, the magisterial fourth edition of this book-now renamed Garner's Modern English Usage (GMEU)-reflects usage lexicography at its finest. Garner explains the nuances of grammar and vocabulary with thoroughness, finesse, and wit. He discourages whatever is slovenly, pretentious, or pedantic. GMEU is the liveliest and most compulsively readable reference work for writers of our time. It delights while providing instruction on skillful, persuasive, and vivid writing. Garner liberates English from two extremes: both from the hidebound "purists" who mistakenly believe that split infinitives and sentence-ending prepositions are malfeasances and from the linguistic relativists who believe that whatever people say or write must necessarily be accepted. The judgments here are backed up not just by a lifetime of study but also by an empirical grounding in the largest linguistic corpus ever available. In this fourth edition, Garner has made extensive use of corpus linguistics to include ratios of standard terms as compared against variants in modern print sources. No other resource provides as comprehensive, reliable, and empirical a guide to current English usage. For all concerned with writing and editing, GMEU will prove invaluable as a desk reference. Garner illustrates with actual examples, cited with chapter and verse, all the linguistic blunders that modern writers and speakers are prone to, whether in word choice, syntax, phrasing, punctuation, or pronunciation. No matter how knowledgeable you may already be, you're sure to learn from every single page of this book.

A Dictionary of English Normative Grammar 1700–1800 (DENG) PDF Book By Bertil Sundby,Anne Kari Bjørge,Kari E. Haugland

A Dictionary of English Normative Grammar 1700–1800 (DENG)

  • Author: Bertil Sundby,Anne Kari Bjørge,Kari E. Haugland
  • ISBN Code: : 9027277680
  • Publisher : John Benjamins Publishing
  • Page : 486 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 139 Readers
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Books Synopsis

Eighteenth-century English grammarians plead eloquently for purity, precision and perspicuity, but their method of teaching largely amounts to citing examples of impurity, imprecision and lack of clarity from contemporary writings. This book is the first of its kind to provide a detailed systematic account of such 'errors'. Apart from source and page references, the Dictionary gives the context of the error (I have not wept this forty years), the correct or 'target' form ('these forty years'), the name of the authors quoted by the grammarians ('Addison', 'Swift'), and the labels which sum up their assessment of the error ('absurd', 'solecism'). It operates with error categories such as ambiguity, ellipsis and government (fourteen in all), which are subdivided into grammatically described main entries, subentries, and so on. The Introduction includes a guide to the use of the Dictionary, the grammatical code, and a discussion of grammatical concepts, error typologies, problems of identifying literary sources, attitudes to correctness, grammatical figures, and other topics. A Bibliography and an Index of lexical items and technical terms round off the volume. The way the Dictionary is organized should make it possible to find in it the answer to a wide variety of questions pertaining to grammar, style and linguistic historiography.

The Glamour of Grammar PDF Book By Roy Peter Clark

The Glamour of Grammar

  • Author: Roy Peter Clark
  • ISBN Code: : 9780316089067
  • Publisher : Little, Brown
  • Page : 304 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 162 Readers
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Books Synopsis

Early in the history of English, the words "grammar" and "glamour" meant the same thing: the power to charm. Roy Peter Clark, author of Writing Tools, aims to put the glamour back in grammar with this fun, engaging alternative to stuffy instructionals. In this practical guide, readers will learn everything from the different parts of speech to why effective writers prefer concrete nouns and active verbs. THE GLAMOUR OF GRAMMAR gives readers all the tools they need to"live inside the language"--to take advantage of grammar to perfect their use of English, to instill meaning, and to charm through their writing. With this indispensable book, readers will come to see just how glamorous grammar can be.

Allen's Dictionary of English Phrases PDF Book By Robert Allen

Allen's Dictionary of English Phrases

  • Author: Robert Allen
  • ISBN Code: : 0141917687
  • Publisher : Penguin UK
  • Page : 832 pages
  • Genre : Reference
  • Reviews : 282 Readers
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Books Synopsis

Allen’s Dictionary of English Phrases is the most comprehensive survey of this area of the English language ever undertaken. Taking over 6000 phrases, it explains their meaning, explores their development and gives citations that range from the Venerable Bede to Will Self. Crisply and wittily written, the book is packed with memorable and surprising detail, whether showing that 'salad days' comes from Antony and Cleopatra, that 'flavour of the month' originates in 1940s American ice cream marketing, or even that we’ve been 'calling a spade a spade' since the sixteenth century. Allen’s Dictionary of English Phrases is part of the Penguin Reference Library and draws on over 70 years of experience in bringing reliable, useful and clear information to millions of readers around the world – making knowledge everybody’s property.

A Concise Dictionary of Correct English PDF Book By B. A. Phythian

A Concise Dictionary of Correct English

  • Author: B. A. Phythian
  • ISBN Code: : 1442233877
  • Publisher : Rowman & Littlefield
  • Page : 176 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 690 Readers
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Books Synopsis

Based on authoritative sources (Fowler, Gowers, Partridge and the Oxford dictionaries), this book is intended for those who would like to be guided round some of the more common pitfalls in the use of English. It is also a practical introduction to the grammar of modern English, grammar being the basis for a proper understanding of what is correct current usage. The compiler, while making a stand against linguistic abuses such as ungrammatical expressions and ugly coinages, circumlocutions and tautology, fashionable metaphors and misuse of technical terms, has an up-to-date attitude to English as a living, developing language, which is constantly changing through usage and the needs of its writers and speakers. Many, often entertaining, examples of both good and incorrect (but frequently found) English support the definitions in the dictionary.

The Oxford Handbook of English Grammar PDF Book By Bas Aarts,Jill Bowie,Gergana Popova

The Oxford Handbook of English Grammar

  • Author: Bas Aarts,Jill Bowie,Gergana Popova
  • ISBN Code: : 019107120X
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Page : 752 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 996 Readers
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Books Synopsis

This handbook provides an authoritative, critical survey of current research and knowledge in the grammar of the English language. Following an introduction from the editors, the volume's expert contributors explore a range of core topics in English grammar, beginning with issues in grammar writing and methodology. Chapters in part II then examine the various theoretical approaches to grammar, such as cognitive, constructional, and generative approaches, followed by the chapters in part III, which comprehensively cover the different subdomains of grammar, including compounds, phrase structure, clause types, tense and aspect, and information structure. Part IV offers coverage of the relationship between grammar and other fields - lexis, phonology, meaning, and discourse - while the concluding part of the book investigates grammatical change over time, regional variation, and genre and literary variation. The handbook's wide-ranging coverage will appeal to researchers and students of English language and linguistics from undergraduate level upwards.

A Sociolinguistic History of British English Lexicography PDF Book By Heming Yong,Jing Peng

A Sociolinguistic History of British English Lexicography

  • Author: Heming Yong,Jing Peng
  • ISBN Code: : 1000429482
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Page : 258 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 566 Readers
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Books Synopsis

A Sociolinguistic History of British English Lexicography traces the evolution of British English dictionaries from their earliest roots to the end of the 20th century by adopting both sociolinguistic and lexicographical perspectives. It attempts to break out of the limits of the dictionary-ontology paradigm and set British English dictionary-making and research against a broader background of socio-cultural observations, thus relating the development of English lexicography to changes in English, accomplishments in English linguistics, social and cultural progress, and advances in science and technology. It unfolds a vivid, coherent and complete picture of how English dictionary-making develops from its archetype to the prescriptive, the historical, the descriptive and finally to the cognitive model, how it interrelates to the course of the development of a nation's culture and the historical growth of its lexicographical culture, as well as how English lexicography spreads from British English to other major regional varieties through inheritance, innovation and self-perfection. This volume will be of interest to students and academics of English lexicography, English linguistics and world English lexicography.

English Traditional Grammars PDF Book By Gerhard Leitner

English Traditional Grammars

  • Author: Gerhard Leitner
  • ISBN Code: : 9027277699
  • Publisher : John Benjamins Publishing
  • Page : 392 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 906 Readers
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Books Synopsis

Until recently grammars of English have received surprisingly little scholarly attention, while a lot of research is done on dictionaries. It appears, however, that learners of English shy away from modern grammars and prefer to consult dictionaries or traditional reference grammars instead. This raises questions as to the relationship between theoretical linguistics and grammar writing and calls for more research into this area, especially for the period from 1800 onwards, which was crucial for the development of grammatical thinking and its acceptance (or rejection) at all educational levels today.This volume brings together work from international experts on the historiography of English grammar writing who deal with a variety of topics grouped into three overlapping sections: I. Native Grammars of English, II. Non-native Grammars of English, and III. Grammatical Analyses. The volume includes summaries of the articles and a name index.

Dynamics of Language Changes PDF Book By Keith Allan

Dynamics of Language Changes

  • Author: Keith Allan
  • ISBN Code: : 9811564302
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Page : 289 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 474 Readers
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Books Synopsis

This book explores the dynamics of language changes from sociolinguistic and historical linguistic perspectives. With in-depth case studies from all around the world, it uses diverse approaches across sociolinguistics and historical linguistics to answer questions such as: How and why do language changes begin?; how do language changes spread?; and how can they ultimately be explained? Each chapter explores a different component of language change, including typology, syntax, morphology, phonology, semantics, lexicology, discourse strategies, diachronic change, synchronic change, how the deafblind modify sign language, and the accommodation of language to song. This book presents a comprehensive analysis of the dynamics of language change over time, simultaneously advancing current research and suggesting new directions in sociolinguistic and historical linguistic approaches.

The Handbook of English Linguistics PDF Book By Bas Aarts,April McMahon,Lars Hinrichs

The Handbook of English Linguistics

  • Author: Bas Aarts,April McMahon,Lars Hinrichs
  • ISBN Code: : 1119540585
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Page : 704 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 547 Readers
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Books Synopsis

Second edition of this popular Handbook bringing together stimulating discussions of core English linguistics topics in a single, authoritative volume—includes numerous new and thoroughly updated chapters The second edition of the popular Handbook of English Linguistics brings together stimulating discussions of the core topics in English linguistics in a single, authoritative volume. Written by an international team of experts, the chapters cover syntax, methodology, phonetics and phonology, lexis and morphology, variation, stylistics, and discourse, and also provide discussions of theoretical and descriptive research in the field. The revised edition includes new and updated chapters on English Corpus Linguistics, experimental approaches, complements and adjuncts, English phonology and morphology, lexicography, and more. In-depth yet accessible chapters introduce key areas of English linguistics, discuss relevant research, and suggest future research directions. An important academic contribution to the field, this book: Presents thirty-two in-depth, yet accessible, chapters that discuss new research findings across the field, written by both established and emerging scholars from around the world Builds upon the very successful first edition, published in 2006 Incorporates new trends in English linguistics, including digital research methods and theoretical advances in all subfields Suggests future research directions The Handbook of English Linguistics, 2nd Edition is an essential reference work for researchers and students working in the field of English language and linguistics.

A Dictionary of Stylistics PDF Book By Katie Wales

A Dictionary of Stylistics

  • Author: Katie Wales
  • ISBN Code: : 1317862066
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Page : 496 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 944 Readers
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Books Synopsis

Reviews of the first edition: '...a work of high seriousness...manna from rhetorical heaven for students and researchers with a lot of hard graft ahead of them... '(English Today) '...an impressive single-author reference work... '(English) '...Not only is this volume indispensible for anyone, students or academics, working in any field related to stylistics, it is, like all the best dictionaries, a very good read...' (Le Lingue del Mondo) Over the past ten years there have been striking advances in stylistics. These have given rise to new terms and to revised thinking of concepts and re-definitions of terms. A Dictionary of Stylistics, 2nd Edition contains over 600 alphabeticlly listed entries: fully revised since the first and second editions, it contains many new entries. Drawing material from stylistics and a range of related disciplines such as sociolinguistics, cognitive linguistics and traditional rhetoric, the revised Third Edition provides a valuable reference work for students and teachers of stylistics, as well as critical discourse analysis and literary criticism. At the same time it provides a general picture of the nature, insights and methodologies of stylistics. As well as explaining terminology clearly and concisely, this edition contains a subject index for further ease of use. With numerous quotations; explanations for many basic terms from grammar and rhetoric; and a comprehensive bibliography, this is a unique reference work and handbook for stylistic and textual analysis. Students and teachers at secondary and tertiary levels of English language and literature or English as a foreign or second language, and of linguistics, will find it an invaluable source of information. Katie Wales is Professor of Modern English Language, University of Leeds and Dean of Learning and Teaching in the Faculty of Arts.

English Usage Guides PDF Book By Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade

English Usage Guides

  • Author: Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade
  • ISBN Code: : 0192535714
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Page : 289 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 432 Readers
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Books Synopsis

This volume explores both historical and current issues in English usage guides or style manuals. Guides of this sort have a long history: while Fowler's Modern English Usage (1926) is one of the best known, the first English usage guide was published in the UK in 1770, and the first in the US in 1847. Today, new titles come out nearly every year, while older works are revised and reissued. Remarkably, however, the kind of usage problems that have been addressed over the years are very much the same, and attitudes towards them are slow to change - but they do change. The chapters in this book look at how and why these guides are compiled, and by whom; what sort of advice they contain; how they differ from grammars and dictionaries; how attitudes to usage change; and why institutions such as the BBC need their own style guide. The volume will appeal not only to researchers and students in sociolinguistics, but also to general readers with an interest in questions of usage and prescriptivism, language professionals such as teachers and editors, and language policy makers.

Processes of Change PDF Book By Sandra Jansen,Lucia Siebers

Processes of Change

  • Author: Sandra Jansen,Lucia Siebers
  • ISBN Code: : 9027262101
  • Publisher : John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Page : 263 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 200 Readers
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Books Synopsis

The present volume brings together leading scholars studying language change from a variety of sociolinguistic perspectives, complementing and enriching the existing literature by providing readers with a kaleidoscopic perspective of aspects of change in English from around 1700 until the present day. The volume presents a collection of in-depth studies on a broad spectrum of phonetic, lexical, grammatical and discourse variation, drawing on historical corpora, dictionaries, metalinguistic commentary, ego-documents, spoken language and survey data. Apart from advancing our knowledge of processes of language change in varieties of English, including British English, Irish English, Australian English, South African English, American English and Canadian English, the individual chapters contribute to the theoretical debates on variation and change in Late Modern as well as Present-day English.

A Dictionary of European Anglicisms PDF Book By Manfred Gorlach

A Dictionary of European Anglicisms

  • Author: Manfred Gorlach
  • ISBN Code: : 0191536172
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Page : 380 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 490 Readers
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Books Synopsis

A Dictionary of European Anglicisms documents the spread of English in Europe. It provides the first exhaustive and up-to-date account of British and American English words that have been imported into the main languages of Europe. English, which imported thousands of words from French and Latin (mainly after 1066), is now by far the world's biggest lexical exporter, and the trade is growing as English continues to dominate various fields ranging from pop music to electronic communication. Several countries have monitored the inflow of anglicisms and some have tried to block it. But language, as lexicographers have always found and as this book demonstrates once more, respects neither boundary nor law. The dictionary not only shows which words have been exported where, but how the process of importation can change a word's form and function, sometimes subtly, at others remarkably as in the transformation of painkiller to Bulgarian 'jack of all trades'. The book provides a systematic description of the lexical input of English into Icelandic, Norwegian, Dutch, German, Russian, Polish, Croatian, Bulgarian, French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, Finnish, Hungarian, Albanian, and Greek. Each entry has a brief definition of the loan word, followed by information on its history and distribution; variations in its spelling, meaning, and pronunciation; its route of transmission if not direct from English; its degree of acceptance and usage restrictions; and its native equivalents and derivatives. Grids showing distribution patterns across Europe accompany many of the entries. The Dictionary of European Anglicisms is a scholarly tour de force [French: imported early nineteenth century] and the result of a prodigious research effort across Europe masterminded and directed by Manfred Gorlach. It is a unique resource for comparative analysis and the study of linguistic variation and change. It will fascinate linguists and word-watchers of all persuasions.

Dictionary of Lexicography PDF Book By R. R. K. Hartmann,Gregory James

Dictionary of Lexicography

  • Author: R. R. K. Hartmann,Gregory James
  • ISBN Code: : 113476829X
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Page : 192 pages
  • Genre : Foreign Language Study
  • Reviews : 839 Readers
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Books Synopsis

Dictionaries are among the most frequently consulted books, yet we know remarkably little about them. Who makes them? Where do they come from? What do they offer? How can we evaluate them? The Dictionary of Lexicography provides answers to all these questions and addresses a wide range of issues: * the traditions of dictionary-making * the different types of dictionaries and other reference works (such as thesaurus, encyclopedia, atlas and telephone directory) * the principles and concerns of lexicographers and other reference professionals * the standards of dictionary criticism and dictionary use. It is both a professional handbook and an easy-to-use reference work. This is the first time that the subject has been covered in such a comprehensive manner in the form of a reference book. All articles are self-contained, cross-referenced and uniformly structured. The whole is an up-to-date and forward-looking survey of lexicography.

The Lexicographer's Dilemma PDF Book By Jack Lynch

The Lexicographer's Dilemma

  • Author: Jack Lynch
  • ISBN Code: : 0802719635
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing USA
  • Page : 336 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 830 Readers
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Books Synopsis

In its long history, the English language has had many lawmakers--those who have tried to regulate or otherwise organize the way we speak. Proper Words in Proper Places offers the first narrative history of these endeavors and shows clearly that what we now regard as the only "correct" way to speak emerged out of specific historical and social conditions over the course of centuries. As historian Jack Lynch has discovered, every rule has a human history and the characters peopling his narrative are as interesting for their obsession as for their erudition: the sharp-tongued satirist Jonathan Swift, who called for a government-sponsored academy to issue rulings on the language; the polymath Samuel Johnson, who put dictionaries on a new footing; the eccentric Hebraist Robert Lowth, the first modern to understand the workings of biblical poetry; the crackpot linguist John Horne Tooke, whose bizarre theories continue to baffle scholars; the chemist and theologian Joseph Priestly, whose political radicalism prompted violent riots; the ever-crotchety Noah Webster, who worked to Americanize the English language; the long-bearded lexicographer James A. H. Murray, who devoted his life to a survey of the entire language in the Oxford English Dictionary; and the playwright George Bernard Shaw, who worked without success to make English spelling rational. Grammatical "rules" or "laws" are not like the law of gravity, or even laws against murder and theft--they're more like rules of etiquette, made by fallible people and subject to change. Witty, smart, full of passion for the world's language, Proper Words in Proper Places will entertain and educate in equal measure.

Describing Prescriptivism PDF Book By Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade

Describing Prescriptivism

  • Author: Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade
  • ISBN Code: : 0429558147
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Page : 274 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 861 Readers
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Books Synopsis

Describing Prescriptivism provides a topical and thought-provoking analysis of linguistic prescriptivism in British and American English, from a historical as well as present-day perspective. Focusing on usage guides and usage problems, the book takes a three-fold approach to present an in-depth analysis of the topic, featuring: a detailed study of the advice provided in usage guides over the years; an authoritative comparison of this advice with actual usage as recorded in British and American corpora, including the HUGE (Hyper Usage Guide of English) database – developed specifically to enable this line of study – as well as more mainstream corpora such as COCA, COHA and the BNC; a close analysis of the attitudes to particular usage problems among the general public, based on surveys distributed online through the "Bridging the Unbridgeable" research project’s blog.* With extensive case studies to illustrate and support claims throughout, this comprehensive study is key reading for students and researchers of prescriptivism, the history of English and sociolinguistics. *Found at https://bridgingtheunbridgeable.com/

Transatlantic Perspectives on Late Modern English PDF Book By Marina Dossena

Transatlantic Perspectives on Late Modern English

  • Author: Marina Dossena
  • ISBN Code: : 9027268878
  • Publisher : John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Page : 221 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 655 Readers
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Books Synopsis

The volume presents an innovative approach to studies in Late Modern English by giving attention to variation and change in varieties of English on both sides of the Atlantic. As new corpora become available, scholarly interests broaden their horizons to encompass varieties, the history of which has only just begun to be investigated, and which are likely to yield significant findings. The contributors, whose long experience in the field of English historical linguistics ensures in-depth investigations, employ state-of-the-art tools for the analysis of specific phenomena and to set these in the light of a more encompassing framework concerning different text types and sociolinguistic considerations. While usage guides and dictionaries prove remarkable in their contribution to the definition of what is (not) acceptable in specific social circles, the language of ordinary users also takes centre stage in studies of correspondence, journals and travelogues. The volume is expected to appeal to scholars and students interested in the linguistic history of English as seen in contexts on which – until now – relatively little light has been shed.

An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English, Vol. 2 PDF Book By Ernest Weekley

An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English, Vol. 2

  • Author: Ernest Weekley
  • ISBN Code: : 0486122867
  • Publisher : Courier Corporation
  • Page : 846 pages
  • Genre : Reference
  • Reviews : 881 Readers
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Books Synopsis

Volume 2 of 2. Classic contains most of the more common words, plus slang, archaic words and phrases, and common foreign words. Roots are identified, colloquial usages and alternate spellings are given.

British Sources of Information PDF Book By P. Jackson

British Sources of Information

  • Author: P. Jackson
  • ISBN Code: : 1135794936
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Page : 772 pages
  • Genre : History
  • Reviews : 757 Readers
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Books Synopsis

This comprehensive and versatile reference source will be a most important tool for anyone wishing to seek out information on virtually any aspect of British affairs, life and culture. The resources of a detailed bibliography, directory and journals listing are combined in this single volume, forming a unique guide to a multitude of diverse topics - British politics, government, society, literature, thought, arts, economics, history and geography. Academic subjects as taught in British colleges and universities are covered, with extensive reading lists of books and journals and sources of information for each discipline, making this an invaluable manual.

The Handbook of English Linguistics PDF Book By Bas Aarts,April McMahon,Lars Hinrichs

The Handbook of English Linguistics

  • Author: Bas Aarts,April McMahon,Lars Hinrichs
  • ISBN Code: : 1119540577
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Page : 704 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 112 Readers
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Books Synopsis

Second edition of this popular Handbook bringing together stimulating discussions of core English linguistics topics in a single, authoritative volume—includes numerous new and thoroughly updated chapters The second edition of the popular Handbook of English Linguistics brings together stimulating discussions of the core topics in English linguistics in a single, authoritative volume. Written by an international team of experts, the chapters cover syntax, methodology, phonetics and phonology, lexis and morphology, variation, stylistics, and discourse, and also provide discussions of theoretical and descriptive research in the field. The revised edition includes new and updated chapters on English Corpus Linguistics, experimental approaches, complements and adjuncts, English phonology and morphology, lexicography, and more. In-depth yet accessible chapters introduce key areas of English linguistics, discuss relevant research, and suggest future research directions. An important academic contribution to the field, this book: Presents thirty-two in-depth, yet accessible, chapters that discuss new research findings across the field, written by both established and emerging scholars from around the world Builds upon the very successful first edition, published in 2006 Incorporates new trends in English linguistics, including digital research methods and theoretical advances in all subfields Suggests future research directions The Handbook of English Linguistics, 2nd Edition is an essential reference work for researchers and students working in the field of English language and linguistics.

A Practical Guide to Lexicography PDF Book By Piet van Sterkenburg

A Practical Guide to Lexicography

  • Author: Piet van Sterkenburg
  • ISBN Code: : 9027296510
  • Publisher : John Benjamins Publishing
  • Page : 460 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 662 Readers
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Books Synopsis

This is a state-of-the-art Guide to the fascinating world of the lexicon and its description in various types of dictionaries. A team of experts brings together a solid Introduction to Lexicography and leads you through decision-making processes step-by-step to compile and design dictionaries for general and specific purposes. The domains of lexicography are outlined and its specific terminology is explained in the Glossary. Each chapter provides ample suggestions for further reading. Naturally, electronic dictionaries, corpus analysis, and database management are central themes throughout the book. The book also "introduces" questions about the many types of definition, meaning, sense relations, and stylistics. And that is not all: those afraid to embark on a dictionary adventure will find out all about the pitfalls in the chapters on Design. A Practical Guide to Lexicography introduces and seduces you to learn about the achievements, unexpected possibilities, and challenges of modern-day lexicography.

The Writer's Guide to Self-Editing PDF Book By Naveed Saleh

The Writer's Guide to Self-Editing

  • Author: Naveed Saleh
  • ISBN Code: : 1476634041
  • Publisher : McFarland
  • Page : 280 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 349 Readers
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Books Synopsis

Over the years, technological advances have given publishers the ability to produce more books and online publications with greater speed. This new efficiency, however, has increased editors' workloads, limiting the amount of detailed editorial feedback that they can provide authors. In turn, writers must become self-editors, ensuring that their text is nearly perfect on submission. This book serves as a guide to self-editing nonfiction print and online publications, including articles for general and academic audiences. It is both prescriptive and descriptive, drawing from stylebooks, dictionaries, research, and more to provide a full picture of both style and grammar. Also provided are techniques that boost search-engine optimization and engagement of Internet audiences.

New Perspectives on English Historical Linguistics PDF Book By Christian J. Kay,Carole A. Hough,Irené Wotherspoon

New Perspectives on English Historical Linguistics

  • Author: Christian J. Kay,Carole A. Hough,Irené Wotherspoon
  • ISBN Code: : 9027295425
  • Publisher : John Benjamins Publishing
  • Page : 273 pages
  • Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Reviews : 270 Readers
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Books Synopsis

This is the second of two volumes of papers selected from those given at the 12th International Conference on English Historical Linguistics. The first is New Perspectives on English Historical Linguistics (1): Syntax and Morphology. Together the volumes provide an overview of many of the issues that are currently engaging practitioners in the field. In this volume, the primary concern is with the historical study of the English lexicon and its sound and writing systems. Using research tools such as machine-readable text and lexical corpora, and intellectual tools such as corpus and cognitive linguistics, many of the papers move from a close study of a set of data to conclusions of theoretical significance, often concerning questions of classification and organisation. More broadly, whether concerned with lexicology or transmission, the papers have a social orientation, since neither lexicology nor phonology can be seen as divorced from its social setting.